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 Hormones are defined as specialized chemicals secreted from the endocrine system in the body to control all body functions, where female hormones play a very important role in multiple functions in the body, and both estrogen and progesterone are the main female hormones for women.

Types of estrogen hormones:

Where estrogen hormones are manufactured in men and women, but the use of estrogen hormones in women is much higher than it is in men, and the estrogen test is used to measure better levels of estrogen hormones in the body by taking a sample of blood or urine, and the most important types of estrogen hormone are:


Where the hormone estradiol is the most common type of estrogen hormone that is examined in non-pregnant women, and its percentage in the blood varies during the menstrual cycle, and its percentage decreases and is confirmed in the period of menopause or known as menopause.


As it is secreted from the placenta during pregnancy, where it can be detected starting from the ninth week of pregnancy, and it continues to increase until birth, and it is worth noting that this hormone is not measured except during pregnancy.

Estrone hormone:

In postmenopausal women, estrogen levels can be measured to detect their estrogen levels. It can also be measured in cases of ovarian cancer, testicular cancer, and adrenal gland cancer.

The role of estrogen in the body:

Where estrogen plays a fundamental role in many necessary functions and tasks in the body, and these functions include:

 Physical effects: estrogen is the hormone responsible for shaping the female body and showing secondary sexual characteristics, and it is responsible for increasing the female’s height at puberty, accelerating fat burning, and reducing muscle mass at her.

Reproductive system: The growth of the uterine lining during the cycle, the increase in the size of the uterus, and the increase in vaginal moisture and wall thickness.

 Bones: Estrogen stimulates the bone building process, and reduces bone absorption and erosion.

Protein formation: as it helps in the process of building proteins, and increases the production of binding proteins, and coagulation proteins, as well as increases the adhesion of platelets and anti-thrombin number 3.

Blood lipids: where estrogen increases both high-density protein fats, or the so-called beneficial cholesterol, and triglycerides, while it reduces low-density protein fats.

Fluids and electrolyte ions: Estrogen increases the retention of water and sodium in the body.

 Digestive system: Estrogen affects the digestive system, as it reduces the movement of the digestive tract, and increases the amount of cholesterol in the bile.

Respiratory system: The estrogen hormone increases and improves the functions of the lungs (lungs) in the respiratory system.

Hormones: Estrogen hormones increase the production of the hormone cortisol, in addition to its effect on increasing globulin, which is associated with sex hormones.

 Fetal development: Estrogen contributes to the physical differentiation of the fetus into a male or female according to its genetic code, as estrogen contributes to the feminization of the fetus, unlike the male hormone testosterone, which gives the male pigment to the fetus.

 Mental health: where estrogen plays an important role in this, as a sudden decrease in its level in the blood and its continued decline is associated with a feeling of a decrease in mood, for example, the likelihood of depression during menopause and postpartum increases due to its low rate during that period.


Progesterone is one of the steroid hormones present in the woman's body, and it is secreted by the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine gland made by the woman's body after ovulation in the second half of the menstrual cycle, and the hormone progesterone is produced by the placenta, also during pregnancy to preserve At a high level of it, but when pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum dissolves and thus the concentration of progesterone in the body decreases, which leads to the occurrence of menstruation.

The role of progesterone in the body:

Where the preparation of the body for the process of pregnancy is one of the most important roles of the hormone progesterone in the body, and this happens as follows:

  •  Stimulating the endometrium to receive a fertilized egg, by increasing its thickness. Prevent contractions in the womb, as these cause the body to reject a fertilized egg.
  •  Preventing the production of a new egg in the body, due to the high proportion of progesterone in the body.
  •  Stimulating the body to nourish the endometrium with blood vessels that nourish the fetus when pregnancy occurs, and prepare the breast for milk production.

Decreased progesterone hormone:

 The hormone progesterone does not remain at the same level all the time, it may rise in certain cases and decrease in others, and among the conditions that lead to its decrease, the occurrence of miscarriage, menopause, and the presence of problems in the ovaries or the ovulation process itself, and symptoms of low progesterone include the following:

  1.  Abnormal uterine bleeding.
  2. Irregular menstruation or its complete absence.
  3. Slight vaginal bleeding and pain in the abdomen during pregnancy.
  4.  Recurrent miscarriage or premature labor.
  5. Increased rise in the hormone estrogen, which may affect sexual desire, weight gain, and gallbladder problems.